Dealing with difficult pages.

Dealing with Difficult Pages
JAWS makes reading and using the Internet easy and fun. However, Web page authors must follow certain guidelines to make their pages accessible to JAWS and other screen reading software. JAWS reads most pages well, even if they are not designed with accessibility in mind. Occasionally, you may come across a page that is poorly designed or difficult to use with JAWS. In this section, you will learn some tricks for dealing with these difficult Web pages.

Reading Pages that Refresh Automatically
Some Web pages automatically refresh - or reload - after a certain period of time. Usually this is done to update information on the page in a timely fashion. When a page refreshes, JAWS moves you back to the beginning of the page. This can interrupt what you are doing. To see an example of a page like this, go to the refreshing version of the E-Stocks sample page and try to read through it. This version of the E-Stocks sample page is designed to refresh every few seconds so that the stock quotes remain accurate.

Tip: Notice that after the page refreshes automatically, JAWS informs you how often this page reloads. You must be using Beginner verbosity to hear this message.

To make pages that automatically refresh easier to work with, do the following:
1. Go to the refreshing version of the E-Stocks sample page.
2. Press INSERT+V.
3. Press R until you select "Refresh Page - automatically."
4. Press the SPACEBAR to choose "Off."
5. Press ENTER.
6. Try reading through the refreshing version of the E-Stocks sample page again. The page still refreshes every 10 seconds, but you can read the text without being interrupted or returning to the top of the page.

Working with Improperly Tagged Images
Sometimes a Web page author does not assign alternate text, a title, or a long description to images on the page. JAWS ignores images like these because the program cannot provide you with any useful information. However, if the image is also a link, then JAWS announces the location (or file path) of the image. You can also view the destination URL of the image link.

Tip: You can also have JAWS announce images on the page with no descriptive text that aren't links. Alternatively, you can tell JAWS to ignore all images on the page. To do this, press INSERT+V and select "Graphics in HTML - tagged." Choose "All" to hear all images on the page, or choose "None" if you don't want JAWS to announce any images.

The image below this paragraph is the Freedom Scientific corporate logo. It is also a link to the Freedom Scientific Web site. This image does not have any descriptive text. When you move to the image, JAWS reads the name of the file. Unfortunately, in this case the file name is also not descriptive.


To obtain some more information about this image, do the following:
1. Press INSERT+V.
2. Press A to select "As a Last Resort."
3. Press the SPACEBAR to choose "Link's URL."
4. Press ENTER.
5. Press SHIFT+TAB to move back to the Freedom Scientific logo image link. Notice that JAWS now reads the destination of this graphic link, which is

Ignoring Flash Content
Some Web pages use a format called Flash to display animated, dynamic content. You can select Flash links, activate buttons, read information, and type within edit fields just like on most Web pages. Flash animations are presented as part of the page, and JAWS announces when you enter and exit the animation.

Since Flash is a very graphical format, some pages that use Flash may have little or no useful text content that JAWS can read and use to tell you what is on the screen. There are two Internet Explorer verbosity options that will help you work with these types of pages. To. Flash Movies - Turn this option off to ignore Flash content on Web pages. . Refresh Flash Movies - This option allows you to specify how often active content is refreshed. Active Content includes ActiveX controls and Flash animations. You can turn this option off to prevent active content from refreshing.

Ignoring Advertisements
There are two types of advertisements that you will often encounter while browsing the Internet: pop-ups and banners. Pop-up ads automatically create a new browser window that contains the advertisement. Banner ads are inline frames that appear within the page content and display advertisements.

Pop-Up Ads
Because many Web pages have legitimate reasons to create new browser windows, JAWS does not have a setting that prevents pop-up ads. When a pop-up ad displays, you can press ALT+F4 to close the new browser window that displays. Alternatively, you can purchase or download a third party program that blocks pop-up ads.

Banner Ads
If you want JAWS to temporarily ignore banner ads on a page, do the following:
1. Press INSERT+V.
2. Press I until you select "Inline Frames - shown."
3. Press the SPACEBAR to choose "Hidden."
4. Press ENTER.

To have JAWS permanently ignore all inline frames, including banner ads, that you might encounter:
1. Press INSERT+F2, select "Configuration Manager," and press ENTER.
2. From the Set Options menu, choose HTML Options.
3. Press CTRL+TAB until you move to the Headings and Frames tab.
4. Press ALT+N to move to and check the Ignore Inline Frames check box.
5. Close Configuration Manager and save your changes.

Getting More Information about Links
Sometimes the text of a link will not be very descriptive. For example, a Web may have a link called "Click here." To change how JAWS reads links on a Web page, do the following:
1. Press INSERT+V.
2. Press L until you select "Links with Text Only - screen text."
3. Press the SPACEBAR to cycle through the available options. Choose one of the following:
. Title - JAWS first looks for and reads information provided by the TITLE attribute. If no title text is found, JAWS reads the on screen text.
. Screen Text - JAWS reads the on screen text.
. On Mouse Over - JAWS looks for "OnMouseOver quoted text" and speaks it.
. Longest - JAWS speaks the longest string of information for each link.
. Custom Search - JAWS searches for information in the order specified in Configuration Manager, HTML Options and reads the first information found.

Skipping Past Site Navigation
Many sites have site navigation elements, such as navigation bars or a long series of links, at the top of each page. These links are a useful way to help visitors get around the site. However, designs like this can make it difficult for users of screen readers to get to the content of each page on the site, since you have to read through all the links first.

Tip: Some sites may provide a link at the top of each page called "Skip to Main Content," "Skip Navigation," or something similar. You can use these links to move past the site navigation and get to the page content.

To skip past site navigation links, buttons, and other elements, use the navigation quick key N. Pressing N moves you to the next block of text that is not a link. Usually, pressing N a few times will take you right to the main content of the page.

Using the Information Bar
If you are using Windows XP with Service Pack 2, Internet Explorer may block some Web content. Most often this includes pop-up windows or active content. When Internet Explorer blocks content, you hear a sound and a message appears on the Information Bar. The Information Bar is located below the address bar and provides information about downloads, blocked pop-up windows, and other activities. This helps you avoid potentially harmful files that you might otherwise download from the Internet.

To move to and read the Information Bar, press ALT+N. You can then press the SPACEBAR to open the Information Bar menu so you can allow Internet Explorer to display the content. To hide the Information Bar and return to the page you were viewing, press ESC.
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